acrylic on canvas
36 x 58

The 8 infamous Black Sox.  Joe Jackson can be seen, at far left, leaning on one of his many black bats -- he called them all "Black Betsy."  At far right is George "Buck" Weaver -- he is the only figure not in contact with any of the other players.  The gap which separates Weaver from the others is small, but it is significant as I believe that Buck, though he knew of the fix, played the Series "on the level."  His many appeals to the Commissioner of Baseball to restore his good name were rejected. This suggests to me that he truly felt he had played the series on the "up and up." This is why I have set him slightly apart from the others. As a side note, unlike the other 7 players, he never took any money.

The 1919 Chicago White Sox

watercolor on paper
10.5 x 20.5

Having won the World Series in 1917, the Chicago White Sox were right back in it when they won the 1919 America League pennant.  They would face the National League champions and heavy under-dogs, Cincinnati Reds.


watercolor on paper
9.75 x  13.75

The tough ex-pugilist first baseman for the Chicago White Sox was the fierce, hard-hitting, excellent fielding Charles Arnold “Chick” Gandil.  Described by those who played with him and against him as a “professional malcontent.” Gandil was the ring-leader for the Black Sox players.


watercolor on paper
10 x 8

Charles August “Swede” Risberg was the light-hitting, fine fielding shortstop for the White Sox in 1919.  He was probably the closest associate to Chick Gandil in convincing the other players to join in the “fix.” Indeed, when the scandal broke, several reporters asked “Shoeless” Joe Jackson why he had gotten himself involved in the "fix" and his cryptic answer was that “The Swede is a hard guy.”


watercolor on paper
13.5 x 12.5

Oscar Emil Felsch was the strong-throwing, hard-hitting  and well-regarded defensive center fielder for the White Sox.  His ebullient attitude earned him the nickname “Happy.”


watercolor on paper
13.25 x 12

Once known as “Error-A-Day” Weaver," Bucky developed into an excellent fielding third baseman. It was said that he was the only third baseman who Ty Cobb would not bunt against, which is high praise.  When he learned of the “fix” he rejected the offer to join in -- but, when he would not rat on his teammates, he was banned from baseball with the rest of them merely because he KNEW of the “fix." He became forever known as a member of the Black Sox.


watercolor on paper
13.25 x 12

Edward Victor Cicotte was the ace right-handed pitcher for the White Sox. Cicotte (and there are various ways that I have heard his last name pronounced) was a solid work-horse, often rivaling if not surpassing, the great Walter Johnson in American League pitching statistics. He was nicknamed “Knuckles” for his superb ability to control the “knuckleball."


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 7.75

Although Fred Drury McMullin was only a utility infielder for the 1919 White Sox, he was considered a keen baseball strategist.  He also scouted the Cincinnati Reds for the team in advance of the series and may have delivered false reports to his club. This raises the question -- did Fred earn his share of the money from the “fix” by delivering false reports?  He had no real opportunities to throw the World Series as he only batted twice (with only one hit) in the 8-games played.


watercolor on paper
11 x 9.5

Claude Preston “Lefty” Williams helped Chicago to the 1917 World Series with a 17-8 record.  In 1919, he enjoyed his finest season, going 23-11 while posting a 2.64 ERA.  When Chick Gandil offered him $10,000 to join in the fix. Williams agreed to the $10,000 but he would only receive $5,000 which was about what he would have been rewarded as the winning share had they won the World Series “on the level."


watercolor on paper
13 x 12

The illiterate mill hand from South Carolina, Joseph Jefferson Jackson, spoke louder than everyone else with his bat, glove and arm.  While playing a mill league game in Greenville, SC, Joe developed blisters on his feet.  Removing the new cleats, Joe played the rest of the game in his socks and when a fan noticed this he called out, “You shoeless son of a gun, you!”  The nickname stuck and he was, and is, forever “Shoeless Joe."


watercolor on paper
12.5 x 18.5

When he was playing in the mill leagues, Joe Jackson was such a powerful hitter that his line drives were called “blue darters” and his home runs were called “Saturday Specials.” Ty Cobb considered him the greatest natural hitter that he ever saw. It is said that Babe Ruth emulated Joe’s batting stance (photographs of the men’s batting stance with their feet close together bears this out).


watercolor on paper
11.5 x 10

Due to the war effort, many of the major league teams suffered from lack of talented players as a result of the "work or fight" demand by the U.S. government.  Consequently, players either took jobs that contributed to the war effort or enlisted.  Thus, the major leagues suffered.  The season was shortened from 154 games to 140 and combined with the lack of talent, the attendance dropped -- and in turn, so did the revenues for the owners.  Money became a big issue.  In 1919, to recoup some of their losses, the owners decided to implement a 9-game format in the World Series. Things were getting desperate for owners.


watercolor on paper
12.5 x 19.5

Both Joe Jackson (South Carolina) and Lefty Williams (Missouri) were from the South, so they became best friends on the team.  Yet the 1919 White Sox was a very divided team.  Though they played next to each other, first baseman, Chick Gandil, and second baseman, Eddie Collins, didn’t speak all year.  During warm ups between innings, Gandil wouldn’t even roll the ball to Collins.  Joe & Lefty were able to create a personal alliance in a divided team atmosphere. This ball club was hugely factionalized and that may have created a "perfect storm" for the fix.


watercolor on paper
10.25 x 9.5

Long before the 1919 World Series, the White Sox had been called the black sox. In an effort to save money in the years before the 1919 season, owner Charles Comiskey made his players pay to have their uniforms cleaned.  Considering what little money the players made, they refused to do this, so they began playing games in uniforms that became progressively dirtier and dirtier as the season wore on.  Their uniforms became so soiled, that they were coined “black sox” by their opponents.  Comiskey eventually relented, not because it was the right thing to do, but because he didn't like the team being called the black sox.


watercolor on paper
11.75 x 8.5

Baseball players are a very superstitious group.  Each player has his own ritual to conjure supernatural powers to enhance their performance.  Joe Jackson was known to sit in a darkened room and stare at a candle with one hand over his eye until that eye went blind -- and then he’d do the same for the other eye.  How he ever came up with this ritual is unknown but who can argue with it?  His lifetime batting average of .356 is the third highest in baseball history!


watercolor on paper
10.25 x 6.75

In the summer of 1919, young Eddie Bennett, a hunchbacked dwarf, needed a job.  He approached the White Sox center fielder, Happy Felsch, and promised him that he would bring him luck.  Happy hired the little fellow and immediately his batting average improved as well as his fielding.  As his other teammates noticed Happy’s marked improvement, they adopted Eddie as their team mascot and he led them to the 1919 World Series!


watercolor on paper
18 x 23.5

Trying to capture baseball games “in action” without being too blurry was almost impossible in the early days of photography. Players often struck a pose based on the activity the photographer was trying to capture: batting, pitching, fielding and throwing.  These “frozen” poses have always reminded me of ancient bronze statues of mythological Greek Heroes and Gods.


watercolor on paper
12.5 x 17.5

Ringgold Wilmer Lardner was a noted sports columnist and short-story writer who was greatly admired by many of his contemporaries like Ernest Hemingway, Virginia Wolff, and F. Scott Fitzgerald.  When Hemingway was a young man writing for his high school newspaper, he often wrote under the by-line, Ring Lardner Jr.


watercolor on paper
10 x 10.5

Big money came down from New York betting on the Cincinnati Reds -- and everyone, rightly or not -- thought Arnold Rothstein (AR) was putting down the bets. One theory, is that Arnold Rothstein was backing it through his middle man Abe Attell (The Little Champ). Another theory is that Arnold wanted no part of it but The Little Champ put the money down invoking AR's initials, spurring a betting frenzy in favor of the Reds.


watercolor on paper
11 x 8

Abraham Washington Attell, known as “The Little Champ” enjoyed a six year reign as World Featherweight Champion from 1906-1912. As an associate of Arnold Rothstein, it is thought that Attell was the bag man for Rothstein and may have carried the money from Rothstein to the players to throw the World Series.


watercolor on paper
7.25 x 7.25

Other gamblers that participated in the “fix” included Billy Maharg, “Sleepy” Bill Burns and Joseph “Sport” Sullivan.  In September 1919, Sullivan and Chick Gandil hatched the idea of the “fix." As a side note,  it is thought that Rothstein agreed to back the “fix” for $80,000 by fronting it through a small-time gambler, Sullivan.  Rothtstein gave Sullivan an initial payment of $40,000 to be distributed among the players. But Sullivan kept $30,000 of it for his own waging and gave Gandil and the players a mere $10,000 to share among themselves -- the betrayals began before the first pitch. 


watercolor on paper
11.75 x 18

Fred McMullin, a utility infielder, overhead a conversation between Chick Gandil and Swede Risberg concerning the “fix." Concerned that he may have heard too much, Risberg invited Freddy to join in the conspiracy by providing "hush money" - even knowing that McMullin would probably serve in a very limited capacity in the series, but insuring he would keep quiet by complicity.    


watercolor on paper
18.25 x 13

The White Sox were full of confidence as the Series approached.  The owner, Charles Comiskey, had one of the highest payrolls in the American League and he had some of the very best players:  Cicotte & Williams on the mound; Joe Jackson and Hap Felsch in the outfield; Buck Weaver, Swede Risberg, Eddie Collins and Chick Gandil around the infield -And the human firecracker, Ray Schalk, was behind the plate!  Manager Kid Gleason was proud and confident in his boys! 


watercolor on paper
11.75 x 19

Though they may have been perceived as underdogs, the Cincinnati Reds were no push-over.  They won the National League pennant “going away” with a record of 96-44, the New York Giants coming in second a full 9 games behind the Reds.  A good all-around ball club, they had excellent starting pitchers like Hod Eller (19-9), Dutch Ruether (19-6) and Ray Fisher (14-5).


watercolor on paper
8 x 11.25

On the eve of the first game of the 1919 World Series, White Sox starting pitcher, Eddie Cicotte, found the $10,000 he had demanded BEFORE the Series was to start. The money was hidden under the pillows on his bed.  He spent the entire night sewing the bills into the lining of his coat.  He had taken the money and the “fix” was on.


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 10.5

The Cincinnati Reds were led by their manager, Patrick Joseph “Pat” Moran.  As a catcher during his playing days, Moran help develop Grover Cleveland Alexander into one of the greatest pitchers of all time.  When his playing days were over, Moran became a manager and had taken the Philadelphia Phillies to their first ever National League pennant in 1915 and now he had guided the Reds to THEIR first ever National League pennant in 1919.


watercolor on paper
13.75 x 14

The 1919 World Series would open in Cincinnati, the hometown of the National League pennant winning Reds. When the White Sox arrived, the town was buzzing-- but because of the shift in the betting, some of that buzz, especially from the betting world -- was the feeling that something wasn’t quite right -- since the odds were indicating a shift in favor of Cincinnati. Those "in the know" could smell a rat.


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 7.75

It's the bottom of the first inning. The White Sox had an uneventful top half, and the Reds came up to bat. Their lead-off hitter was second baseman, Morrie Rath.  Eddie Cicotte, the starting pitcher for the White Sox, fired a strike past Rath on his very first pitch.  Eddie’s second pitch uncharacteristically hit Rath in the back and he jogged down to first base.  Some historians believe that this second pitch, that struck Rath, was a signal to the gamblers that the “fix” was on.  


watercolor on paper
10 x 14

Cincinnati’s starting pitcher was Dutch and he enjoyed a great day.  He held the White Sox to only one run while smacking a two-run triple himself.  Cicotte, in the meantime, gave up 5 runs in 4 innings before being taken out of the game.  Final score: Cincinnati 9, Chicago 1.


watercolor on paper
13.5 x 6.75

Lefty Williams was the Chicago starting pitcher for Game 2 and he pitched well, not wanting to appear as obvious as Cicotte had the day before.  In the 4th inning, Lefty gave up three walks and as many runs and then became unhittable. Cincinnati pitcher Harry "Slim" Sallee, gave up 10 hits and held Chicago to only 2 runs and the Sox lost
Game 2 , 4 - 2.


watercolor on paper
11.25 x 8.25

After Game 2, the Series moved to Chicago.  Legend has it that while wandering through the train cars, Ring Lardner entered the car where the White Sox players were sitting.  Sensing that something was "on the level," Lardner broke into a song based on the popular tune, “I’m Forever Blowing Bubbles” (“pretty bubbles in the air"). But, in Lardner’s version it became:

“I’m forever blowing ball games,
Pretty ball games in the air
I come from Chi,
I hardly try,
Just go to bat and fade and die
Fortune’s coming my way
That’s why I don’t care
I’m forever blowing ball games,
And the gamblers treat me fair.”


watercolor on paper
17.5 x 11

Dickey Kerr started Game 3 for the White Sox in the first game played in Chicago.  He had a good season in 1919 going 13-7 with a 2.88 ERA.  It was thought by the gamblers, “Sleepy” Bill Burns and Billy Maharg, that if the players who were in on the “fix” didn’t hit for him, Kerr would surely lose.  Instead, little Dickey Kerr threw a 3-hit shutout. Sleepy and Billy placed their bets on what they thought was a sure thing -- but, they lost all their winnings and went home (their vengeance would be felt later).


watercolor on paper
12.75 x 19.75

The original plan was that the players would be paid after each game they lost.  So, after losing Game 1, “Sleepy” Bill Burns and Billy Maharg went to Abe Attell to procure the money due the ballplayers.  Attell refused to pay, keeping their share of the money for himself to place bets on Game 2.  The next morning, Chick Gandil went to Attell and demanded payment -- and again, Attell refused.


watercolor on paper
9.75 x 13

Game 4 saw Eddie Cicotte going up against Reds’ pitcher, Jimmy Ring.  The game was scoreless until the 5th when Eddie fielded a slow roller off the bat of Pat Duncan but then threw the ball past Gandil for a two-base error.  The next batter, Larry Kopf,  singled to left.  As Duncan ran towards third, the throw from left fielder, Joe Jackson, was deflected by Cicotte.  As the ball rolled away, Duncan darted home for the first run. 


watercolor on paper
13.5 x 20.5

The next hitter after Larry Kopf, Alfred "Greasy" Neal, then doubled, sending Kopf home with the second and last run of the game.  Chicago was now down 3 games to 1.


watercolor on paper
12 x 21.25

Game 5 saw Lefty Williams pitching a duel with Cincinnati’s Horace "Hod" Eller.  It was a scoreless game until the top of the 6th when Happy Felsch, having fielded Eller's bloop single, made an off-line throw that allowed Eller to advance all the way to third.


watercolor on paper
13.5 x 9.5

Eller then scored on a single by Morrie Rath.  After a walk to Heinie Groh, Edd Roush smacked a double which was misplayed by Happy Felsch sending two more runs home.  Roush would score the fourth run of the inning and that was enough -- winning 5-0.  The Reds were now only one win away from their first World Championship.


watercolor on paper
7.25 x 7

Game 6 saw Dickey Kerr facing off against the Reds’ Jimmy Ring who had been the winning pitcher in Game 4.   Due to three errors by the White Sox, the Reds jumped to a 4-0 lead.   The Sox were able to tie the game in the 6th inning and won the game in the 10th inning when Gandil drove in Buck Weaver for what proved to be the winning run.  With a final score of 5-4, Dickey Kerr and the White Sox had their second victory.


watercolor on paper
10.25 x 8

Eddie Cicotte got his third start in Game 7 and pitched a 7 hit, 4-1 victory.  Chicago was now back in the race -- the Series now standing in Cincinnati's favor at 4-3. 


watercolor on paper
11 x 13.5

The gamblers Joseph “Sport” Sullivan and Arnold Rothstein realized that there was now a good chance that Chicago just might rally.  If they could win the next two games (and they surely could) both Sullivan and Rothstein would lose substantial amounts of money -- they had to do something.


watercolor on paper
13.75 x 9.5

Lefty Williams was Chicago’s starting pitcher for Game 8.  Legend has it that the night before the game, Lefty was approached by a mysterious stranger who made it clear that Lefty should lose the next game. 


watercolor on paper
10.5 x 9.5

Whatever this threat was or whoever it was that made the threat -- it had a profound effect on Lefty. Obviously shaken, Lefty gave up 4 straight hits which scored 3 runs in the first inning alone! Kid Gleason had seen enough and replaced Lefty with Bill James. Although Joe Jackson hit the only home run of the series in the 3rd inning, Chicago lost the game anyway --  10-5  -- and the World Series, 5 games to 3.


watercolor on paper
9 x 21

The 1919 World Series was over but rumors of a “fix” were rife.  


watercolor on paper
10.25 x 8

At one point during the Series, both Charles Comiskey and National League President, John Heydler, had gone to American League President, Byron Bancroft "Ban" Johnson to discuss the rumors of a “fix." Johnson and Comiskey had once been close friends but had a falling out.  Johnson would have taken any opportunity to destroy Comiskey. He listened to Comiskey’s concerns and then blew him off with a curt, “that’s the whelp of a beaten cur!”


watercolor on paper
7.25 x 7.25

With the World Series over and baseball not returning until the following year, national interest in the “fix” began to fade -- but one man kept stoking the fire.  Hugh Fullerton would not let the rumors fade away.  He began interviewing gamblers and players in an attempt to get to the truth.


watercolor on paper
9.75 x 10.75

Apparently Fullerton’s dogged pursuit of the truth did not sit well with some people. One evening while he was walking the streets of Chicago, he was approached by a stranger. When the stranger asked if he was Fullerton, a frightened Fullerton replied, “No…Crane!” -- the first name that came to his mind. A second man approached them and Fullerton took off running. Two shots were fired -- Fullerton stumbled and fell to the ground.  Assuming he was wounded, if not dead, the two strangers quickly ran into the darkness. Hugh was not hit -- he rose from the ground, dusted himself off and sprinted home.


acrylic on paper
15 x 21

As the 1920 season approached, Charles Comiskey offered contracts to the eight players who many suspected of being in on the “fix.” Only Chick Gandil rejected the offer.
He moved to Southern California, bought a home and opened a plumbing company -- he was done with baseball.


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 19

The 1920 season saw the Chicago White Sox back in a three-team race with Boston and Cleveland. But gambler, Billy Maharg, gave an interview which confirmed the rumors of the 1919 “fix." Comiskey was forced to suspend the 7 players mentioned in Maharg’s statement. Without the talents of Felsch, Risberg, Cicotte, Williams, Weaver, McMullin, and Joe Jackson, the White Sox fell out of contention.


watercolor on paper
17.5 x 8

Racked with guilt, Cicotte went before a grand jury and confessed to his participation in the “fix."  He was followed by Joe Jackson and Lefty Williams.  It was at this time that the greatest legend of the Black Sox scandal appeared.  According to an account written by Hugh Fullerton as Joe Jackson left the courthouse after giving his confession, a young boy grabbed Joe's sleeve and looked up at the great hitter and said  “say that this isn’t true!” The boy's words have been altered to the more poetic, “Say it ain’t so, Joe!”


watercolor on paper
11 x 7

After Lefty Williams became the third player to confess to the Grand Jury, Happy Felsch gave an interview which was published in the Chicago American.  Happy was very candid in his explanation.  “Well, the beans are spilled and I think I’m through with baseball.  I got $5,000.  I could have got just about as much by being on the level if the Sox had won the Series.  And now I’m out of baseball - the only profession I know anything about and a lot of gamblers have gotten rich.  The joke seems to be on us.”


watercolor on paper
12.75 x 19.75

Charles Comiskey and the other owners were now caught over a barrel.  Everyone, owners and fans alike, had known for years that gambling was part of baseball (as it was with boxing and horse racing) - but no one wanted to admit it.  With pressure mounting and details of a fix circulating in the media, the scandal was in full bloom and Comiskey saw that a trial would be forthcoming.  In an effort to protect his players, his team and his investments, Comiskey hired the best legal team money could buy. 


watercolor on paper
11 x 11

The Black Sox trial opened in the courtroom of Judge Hugo Friend in Chicago on June 27, 1921.  The 8 suspected players were charged with (1) conspiring to defraud the public;  (2) conspiring to defraud Sox catcher, Ray Schalk; (3) conspiring to commit a confidence game;  (4) conspiring to injure the American League; and  (5) conspiring to injure the business of Charles Comiskey.


watercolor on paper
11 x 6

The figure who loomed over the “fix” was "The Big Bankroll" Arnold Rothstein.  But even today, it is not known the extent of his involvement -- but his presence was everywhere.  When the three confessions went missing, it was believed that Rothstein had paid an insider to steal the documents.  When the trial began, several gamblers were indicted, but Rothstein evaded indictment.


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 8

One of the first witnesses called for the prosecution was “Sleepy” Bill Burns.  He described in detail the sordid machinations of the “fix” and mentioned specifically Gandil, Risberg, McMullin, Williams, Felsch, Cicotte and Buck Weaver.  When asked about Joe Jackson, Burns said that he did not see him at the meeting.


watercolor on paper
15 x 10.5

Early in the trial, the prosecution asked to see the confessions of Cicotte, Jackson & Williams. It was revealed, however, that those confessions were missing (if not actually stolen). Eventually, the missing confessions "appeared" and were read in the courtroom. Judge Friend ruled that they could only be used against the players who gave those confessions -- therefore not implicating any other players. 


watercolor on paper
13 x 19

The prosecution summed up their case on July 29, 1921 -- painting the 8 players as con-men who swindled “the public, the owners, even the small boys on the sandlots” and for turning “our national sport ... into a con game.”  The defense countered suggesting that Arnold Rothstein was the person who should be on trial and not the "underpaid ballplayers.”  The jury deliberated less than three hours and when they came back into the courtroom, they found the 8 ball players innocent of all charges.


watercolor on paper
9 x 12.5

As cheers filled the courtroom and hats were tossed into the air, it had become obvious that it was baseball itself that had been on trial.  Something had to be done to restore the public’s faith in the game.  Enter Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis.


watercolor on paper
20 x 11

Baseball owners had long been aware of the precarious relationship between the gamblers and the players. They needed to address the gambling element in their sport and their commitment in doing something about it. Several months before the trail began, the owners decided the time had come to hire a commissioner of baseball who would wield complete power over how the game would be run.  This man would have to come from outside the baseball fraternity and he'd have to be a hard-hitter. They found their man in Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis. October 5, 1920.  


watercolor on paper
13 x 18

Within 24 hours of hearing the final verdict, Landis, as the newly appointed Commissioner of Baseball,  issued his statement over the fate of the 8 ball players with his famous declaration:

“Regardless of the verdict of juries, no player who throws a ballgame, no player that undertakes or promises to throw a ballgame, no player that sits in conference with a bunch of crooked players and gamblers where the ways and means of throwing a game are discussed and does not promptly tell his club about it, will ever play professional baseball.”

The eight ballplayers were now “out” of baseball -- forever.


watercolor on paper
7.25 x 7.25

A stunned and saddened Charles Comiskey now realized that his dream of a White Sox dynasty was over.  Throughout the remaining years of his life he was often heard mumbling to himself, “I can’t see why they did that to me.”  The White Sox would not appear in a World Series until 1959 - and they would not bring the pendant home until 2005.


watercolor on paper
12 x 13

Landis’ harsh decision and commentary quickly faded when George Herman "Babe" Ruth began hitting balls out of the park and stole the headlines!  In 1920, the Yankee’s outfielder had smacked 54 home runs and the next year, 1921, he had hit 59!  He was hitting more home runs in one year than the total number of home runs by entire teams. The “8 men out” were soon forgotten as the Bambino brought fans roaring back to the ball park.


watercolor on paper
10 x 13.75

All the gamblers involved in the “fix” escaped prosecution.  In October of 1928, Arnold Rothstein took part in a 3-day poker marathon, losing upwards of $320,000 ($4.5 million today).  Claiming that the game was fixed (I love the sense of irony here), he refused to pay. This set in motion the events leading to his murder.


watercolor on paper
8 x 11.25

A month later, in November of 1928, Rothstein was called to a meeting at Manhattan’s Park Central Hotel.  The meeting took place in a third floor room and it is thought that gambler, George “Hump” McManus, shot Rothstein -- mortally wounding him.  As the gamblers fled the scene, Rothstein staggered down the hallway and down three flights of stairs before collapsing.  Rushed to the hospital, Rothstein lingered two days before succumbing to his wounds.  


watercolor on paper
10.75 x 8.75

The 8 banished Black Sox fanned out across America. Most living out the rest of their lives never talking about the “fix."  Chick Gandil gave one interview to Sports Illustrated in 1956, but the others remained silent.  Joe Jackson returned to South Carolina where he was received as a local hero and became a successful business man.  But the memory of what they had once been, professional baseball players on maybe one of the greatest teams ever --  and could have been, if they were able to continue playing --  must surely have haunted them for the remainder of their lives.


watercolor on paper
9.75 x 9

Buck Weaver remained in Chicago and on several occasions wrote letters to the Commissioner of Baseball asking to have his name reinstated.  Each request was refused.  On a cold day in January, 1956, while walking down a Southside street, Buck Weaver collapsed and died of a heart attack.  His indictment still standing.


watercolor on paper
14 x 7.5

Having retired from his plumbing business, Chick Gandil moved to northern California where he died in 1970 at the age of 83.  His wife had him hastily buried and his obituary merely stated that Arnold Gandil, a retired plumber, had died that day.  Not many took notice of his passing until someone recognized the name and realized who Arnold Gandil was, or at least had been. And so, beyond the grave, whether he had been a decent plumber, a good husband or even a wonderful father, he would ALWAYS remain a Black Sox.


watercolor on paper
8 x 8.75

In August 2007, while traveling north from San Francisco to Seattle, I stopped off in the tiny town of Shasta City which lies in the shadow of Mount Shasta.  I located the grave of Charles “Swede” Risberg.  The youngest of the Black Sox, he was the last of the 8 banished players to pass on -- he died on his 81st birthday in 1975.